Monday, January 20, 2020

Criminal Activity Then and Now Essay -- Criminal Justice, Law

Criminal Activity Then and Now Criminal justice is composed of many lateral departments that help us as a society to better understand the process that is started when criminal activity is suspected. We will examine how individuals learn how to commit crime and what motivates them to do so. This paper will discuss the steps that are taken once a crime is determine and how the Criminal Justice System is put into place to help solve and come to some type of resolution for the crime. This paper will further discuss the types of deterrence that are placed into society minds to help curve criminal behavior and activity. After reading this paper the reader should have a better understanding on how the Criminal Justice System works and why it is needed help promote a safe environment for our society. In order to understand what crime is we must first look at the definition of what criminal activity is. The term crime comes from a classification of wrongdoing that were established by state or Congress as a felony or misdemeanor, which is committed against a public law. Crime is defined as all deviance involving violating norms, but some norms attract the attention of the authorities. Acts that have been declared illegal by some authority are called crime (Curry, Jiobu, & Schwirian, 1999). Crime develops from the wanting of certain things that attract or bring attention to certain individuals. A subject that is involved in breaking the law or a moral can be considered a criminal suspect according to the law. Crimes can range from violating less serious traffic code, which is basically a breach of a charter that is imposed by a city and up to the more serious things like murder. Anything that goes against the penal system of a country i... ..., 2010). Criminal Justice is composed of many lateral departments that help us define and better understand how crime can come about in our society. Crime can be learned and used to help one satisfy their personal gain and utilized to replace what is missing. Crime can be reduced by developing rules that enhance the social support that is needed to help families and the community educate them to keep their surrounding safe. By implementing custodial control and punishment can deter some crime but not eliminate it altogether. The criminal justice system is not a system that will stop crime but more of guidelines that come with committing crimes. Our society deserve to live in a safe and healthy environment and by providing policies and rules that help regulate criminal activity will ensure our society that crime will be prosecuted and carried out to the fullest.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

African American Essay

On October 23rd, 2006, a then 24 year old Dorothy Webb stood outside her Mississippi home. Fearing eviction from her home for non-payment of rent, Dorothy decided to do something drastic to save the only home she had grown to love. She walked to ‘the bottom’ which was almost 9 miles away, in an attempt to make a deal with a local drug dealer to sell crack cocaine and earn a profit. â€Å" I was truly scared because although I’ve been in the midst of the drug game as an outsider, I knew the consequences of selling drugs down south. They put my momma away for 8 years because my brother was selling drugs out of her house and she wasn’t even involved. I knew that if they could do that to her to and she didn’t even do anything, I was in real danger of getting even more time if I got caught. But it was between eating and living or being on the streets, so I made a choice that I could live with. I wanted to live in my house with food in my mouth. † According to Dorothy, she waited for days before she sold the drugs that she obtained from ‘the bottom‘. â€Å" I danced and danced around the idea in my head many days before I made my first sale, but I finally did it and it didn’t feel bad to me. By the end of it all, I had made ten sales, I had food in my mouth, and my rent was paid up so I could stay in my house,† Dorothy admits. Dorothy states that she only made those 10 sales, which was enough for her to pay rent and buy food until she was able to get back on her feet. â€Å"Almost a year after I sold the drugs, I was doin’ real good†¦ real good. I had kept my house and I had a job and a car all in that one year. I just kept workin’ and workin’ till one day, the police came to my house and arrested me for selling drugs to an undercover officer, and I was devastated. I mean, I know it was wrong to do so and against the law. I knew that I would get in trouble, but I never could have imagined that it would be as long as I was told. I mean c’mon! Murderers do less time than drug dealers do so where does that leave me, this one person tryin’ to live? During my sentencing, I cried until no more tears could flow. I was facing 20 years for the 10 sales that I made in the last year. After my sentencing, I ran to Illinois to be with my family until I was caught last week on a technicality† (D, Webb, personal communication, February, 2008). Dorothy Webb remains in a St. Clair county Illinois jail awaiting transport to Mississippi where she will start serving out her sentence. Dorothy’s story is not unlike many other African American men and women whom face years of their lives behind bars for drug trafficking and other related drug charges. Irreversible effects from drug related racial profiling and disparity should be stopped in relation to the African American community by way of rehabilitation for offenders and judicial officials. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Cocaine is a white powder substance originating from the coca plant dating as far back as the 11th century. It was used in the early 1800s to treat an assortment of common ailments ranging from hiccups to pneumonia. Presently, cocaine has been deemed very addictive and has been illegal in the United States for over 100 years. Cocaine can be snorted through the nose or used to intravenously. Crack cocaine is a free based substance that is used for smoking. It is produced by combining baking soda and cocaine and is cooked to generate a hard, rock-like material. Because the crack cocaine has been altered, using more baking soda than cocaine, it results in being a cheaper drug that requires less to cause a ‘high’ feeling (Lu, Taylor, & Riley, 2001, p. 399). From a socio-economic standpoint, the black community, consisting of mostly the poor or working class can afford crack, while whites whom generally consist of middle class families, thus financially stable, chose cocaine as a drug of choice. It is relatively clear that many users of crack cocaine consist of mostly individuals from the African American community. Many admit to using and selling the drug, however, evidence shows that white Americans produce an even higher population of illicit drug abusers and those whom traffic drugs as well. Although drug abuse among blacks is easily visual in ‘crack houses’ and even effortless drug sales on street corners, whites are not as flamboyant when it comes to drug use, conversely, middle America is now pressed with an overwhelming methamphetamine dilemma. Nevertheless, many professionals concerned with the sociological aspects of drug solicitation in African American communities across the nation scrutinize the domino effect resulting from wide-spread drug quandary such as child abandonment, school dropout rates, and deteriorating homes. In fact, Kennedy states that â€Å"Law enforcement naturally and logically focuses on those communities where illegal drug use has created the most harmful and most visible effects†¦ More generally, illegal drug use is seen as devastating African-American communities in a way that is not seen outside the inner city. People losing jobs, kids dropping out of school, parents neglecting or abandoning their children–all of these social costs are more readily seen in the inner city than in the more affluent white communities where illegal drug use seems to be relatively benign. Even more to the point, illegal drug use in the inner city is seen as crimogenic–the inner -city user of illegal drugs is thought to be more likely to steal or commit some other crime to finance his drug use† ( 2003, p. 154). The theoretical reasoning behind the abuse of crack cocaine in the black community has been speculated as the end result of a people in dire need, monetarily and emotionally, nonetheless, these outcomes resulting from drug infested communities do not constitute the racial disparity that is currently occurring throughout the nation, however, the issues do cause a need for probable concern . The illicit use and distribution of crack cocaine is steadily ricocheting through the African American community. In fact, according to Angeli, â€Å"The increase in the rates of incarceration of young black males is due primarily to the focus of the ‘war on drugs’ on black drug users. For drug offenses, the African American proportion of arrests increased from 24% in 1980 to 39% in 1993, even though African Americans comprise only 13% of monthly drug users. From 1986 to 1990, the number of minority jail inmates increased more than twice as fast as the number of white inmates, and the increase in the number of arrests of minorities for drug offenses was almost ten times the increase in arrests of white drug offenders† (1997, p. 1213). It is undisputable that this jump in the number of incarceration of blacks was initiated due to the passing of the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984. Under the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984, congress enabled sentencing commissions to guide the legislature of punishments for crack and cocaine possession offences. Subsequently, the commission ruled that â€Å"At every quantity level federal defendants convicted of a crack cocaine offense receive the same sentences as powder cocaine defendants convicted of an offense involving 100 times as much cocaine (Angeli, 1997, p. 1212). It seems that these laws were put into place to purposely capture blacks in the system given that the Judicial system is aware that all crack possessions are in the hands of blacks by a very larger margin than any other race. This can be corroborated with current percentages contrasted to earlier figures from the1920s before these laws were enacted. Compared to the early 1900s, when African Americans only made up less than 20% of the prison population for illicit possession of alcohol and drugs, while foreign-born whites accounted for over 40%. In 1992, 92. 6% of drug offenders were African American and 4. 7% were white and possessed pure cocaine (Elden, 2005). At present, over 1/3 of the total black male population is wedged in the judicial system involving imprisonment, parole, or probation, thus proving that race seems to be the issue in the current war on drugs. In previous combats in the war on drugs, other races were equally targeted just as contemporary matters of racial disparity. In the early 1920s, foreign born immigrants, whom made up much of the American population then were the predominately incarcerated culprits for drug trafficking and or distribution. Contemporary legislature has made the proper amendments to finally put an end to the racial disparity regarding blacks and crack cocaine sentences. In the later part of 2007, in the case of United States v. Kimbrough, Defendant Derrick Kimbrough was initially convicted and sentenced to 168 to 210 consecutive months for three counts of conspiracy to distribute 50 grams of crack cocaine. This decision was lessened by district courts to a total sentence of 120 months for all three charges and 60 consecutive months for possession of a firearm in connection to his arrest for the drug charges. This one case is a landmark case that will begin with the release of those whom have served a significant amount of time towards less severe charges related to crack cocaine and will lessen the amount of time given to those whom are tried and convicted of illicit drug crimes involving crack cocaine. SUGGESTIONS Although the damage has been done, thus forever disparaging the trust of black people in today’s justice system, things can still be done in an attempt to reverse illegitimate imprisonment of blacks for miniscule drug offenses. The war on drugs should simultaneously preserve our country’s promise to liberty and justice to each individual, equally regardless of race, stature, or background. If in fact the war on drugs is to combat all forms of illicit drug use and or trafficking, subsequently, all drugs should be charged consistently relative to quantity. Not only is the 100 to 1 ratio law unfair but it is also racially charged. It is apparent that the judicial system is aware of this racial activity that is continually produced by the members of government and courts, and have thus began to amend laws. However, regardless of these current revisions, more lenient laws should also be inserted concerning all first time offenders. For quantities less than 20 grams, no time should be served at all and incidents should be regarded as a misdemeanors, requiring community service and or fines. Amounts less than 10 pounds should result in months and not years in jail time as well. Additionally, rehabilitation programs for drug offenders as well as court officials should be created. Just as drug rehabilitation programs for drug abusers aid in job placement programs and drug dependency, drug distributors should also have to attend similar programs that are geared towards the rehabilitation of drug dependency as a way of career. If these offenders could understand the fundamentals behind their professions, it would be probable that they would return to their communities, not as an vandals, but as a productive member of society and their community. It may also be a good idea to implement drug addicts into their program as well, in order to reveal insight into the lives of those whom they have destroyed. If these programs could be implemented and utilized, it is very probable that there would be a significantly less amount of repeat offenders as well. Lastly, many officials believe that many members of law enforcement have very little role in the prosecution of crack cocaine holders. However, law enforcement officials are responsible for obtaining criminals. Racial disparity begins in this area first. As stated earlier, officers logically pursue areas where drugs have the most detrimental effects, however If equal focus would be put upon all races to prohibit the distribution of drugs, eventually, all areas of drug distribution would eventually subdue, principally the methamphetamine business. CONCLUSIONS Although the end results of drug use or distribution are riveted throughout the African American community, either through school dropout rates, child abandonment or neglect, and job loss, the effects of unfair drug sentences are equivalently devastating. More than 1/3 of the black male population have been witness to some form of the judicial prejudice through incarceration, parole, or probation, and the number is steadily increasing each year. It is more than probable that race is the intended target for these drug wars that are presently occurring, whilst this has happened previously in an earlier time. During the early 1920s, foreign-born immigrants were the targets during the first war against drugs in the United States, while African American men made up less than 20% of the total incarcerated population. At this time, the judicial system has commenced realization of these racially charged attacks on the African American community, thus lessening the sentencing of crack cocaine offenders. This was proved in a recent landmark case, The United States v. Kimbrough. In this case, Derrick Kimbrough’s lengthy 168 to 210 consecutive month sentence was cut down to a little more than half at 120 consecutive months. Although the court system has made this advancement in this area, further innovations must also be met as well. Progression within drug distribution rehabilitation programs should also be implemented. For instance, former drug distributors should be enrolled in some of the same programs that drug abusers undergo. These offenders should be allowed to hear the testimonies of the many lives that they have destroyed due to drug distribution and dependency as a profession. Additionally, programs should be executed, allowing each offender job placement and job training so that their likelihood of returning to that lifestyle will be greatly reduced. Members of the courts should also be counseled as well to allow insight into the lives of the people that they convict, therefore, sentencing will be fair and relevant to each case, instead of an overall depiction of that type of society. Members of law enforcement should also take rehabilitation classes that will allow them to equally focus on all areas of society that is ridden with drugs instead of primary focus on the black community. If these measures were considered and utilized, United States would be on its way to a less racially prejudiced society.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Summarize. During The Conference, Professor Angeline Shared

Summarize During the conference, Professor Angeline shared that she was very satisfied with my project idea. She also believes in the benefits of mentorship in the workplace. She also shared with me some of the concerns she had about my project. She told me that I should think about the financial benefits of the Mentorship Program. Why is it worth their time and money to implement the mentorship program? I have contacted the director of the Internship Pathways Program (IPP) to discuss this matter in more detail. Professor Angeline also brought up a great point about how â€Å"not everyone is built to be an educator†. Coming from an education background, I wholeheartedly agree that we cannot assume that all experienced interns will do a good†¦show more content†¦In my Preliminary Topic Memo, I stated that â€Å"mentors can also reap the benefits of a Mentorship Program†, but I neglected to explain how that will be possible. While I was first developing the idea of the program, I completely overlooked the fact that not everyone is built to be a mentor. For many of the interns, this will be their first time teaching someone. At my meeting with Ms. Eason, I brought up the idea of a training session for mentors and she was very pleased to see that the program caters towards not only the mentees but also the mentors. She even suggested throwing a pizza party for the mentors to show appreciation and get feedback directly from them. This was an eye-opening moment for me because all this time I had only thought of ways to improve satisfaction rates of the new interns. However, the mentors are also interns as well and Ms. Eason wants to increase the retention rate of all interns, not just the new interns. This realization helped me broaden my perspective and think about how the Mentorship Program can increase the satisfaction rate of all interns, both new and experienced. The Story After talking with Professor Angeline and Ms. Eason, I have come to the conclusion that a Values-in-Action story is most suitable for my proposal. The Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC) is an agency of the United States government that provides timely and

Thursday, December 26, 2019

Portfolio Analysis On Vanguard, Reynolds And Hasbro

Xiaoling Tang 1654 Aspen Ct. Apt 237 Kent, OH 44240 July 27, 2015 Ms. Sharpe 3737 Cascades Blvd #206 Kent, OH 44240 Dear Ms. Sharpe: RE: PORTFOLIO ANALYSIS ON VANGUARD, REYNOLDS AND HASBRO Investment decision is an intricate process that requires careful analysis of individual investment options available for continued profitability. Different financial analyses provide different perspectives. While ratio analysis of an individual company offers the financial health of that company, its comparison with other key investment opportunities may be limited when comparing across different industries. This analysis seeks to utilize a number of statistical and financial results emerging from the analysis of 5 years of data. The results will be analyzed and discussed per individual subheading used in the analysis to provide a broader picture. The mean of Vanguard is 0.57433 as compared to RJR and Hasbro whose means are significantly high at 1.87483333 and 1.18383. However, the standard deviations of the three variables indicate that Vanguard has the lowest standard deviation at 3.60171 as compared to 9.36645828 and 8.11583 for RJR and Hasbro respectively. The lowest standard deviation as in the case of Vanguard indicates that the data is more reliable and provides a more realistic data set than the other data sets. Thus, Vanguard provides the best investment opportunity. The median of the data may not provide a very accurate description of the variables although Vanguard’sShow MoreRelatedAlex Sharpe Client Letter Essay930 Words   |  4 Pagesto your current equity portfolio in the Vanguard 500 Index Fund. And you are interested in the Hasbro and Reynolds. So I have done some analysis on the possible combination of these stocks. First, I did a summary statistics of the three assets base on the latest five years’ worth of monthly returns for Vanguard Samp;P 500 Index Fund, R.J. Reynolds and Hasbro. Among those return data, the Vanguard has a maximum return of 34.46% and a minimum return of -10.14. The Reynolds has a maximum return ofRead MoreAlex Sharpes Portfolio Solution Essay1231 Words   |  5 PagesContext: Alex Sharpe currently invests her children’s educational savings in Vanguard 500 Index Fund, which tracks the performance of Samp;P 500 and is passively managed. However, she is now considering switching her investment strategy to a more active one to achieve better outcomes. Hasbro, a toy manufacturer, and Reynolds, a tobacco firm, have come into Sharpe’s sight and she wants to choose one of them and invest a small proportion of equity funds in it. In order to select a more appropriate

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

The Effects Of Intimate Partner Violence On The Workplace...

Every year, nearly 10 million men and women are abused by an intimate partner in the United States. Intimate partner violence or IPV is defined as any behavior within an intimate relationship that causes physical, psychological, or sexual harm to those in the relationship (Burgess, Regerhr, Roberts, 2013). Acts of physical aggression include slapping, punching, kicking, beating, and biting. Twenty individuals are victims of physical violence every minute in the United States. Psychological maltreatment is the hardest form of abuse to detect, however it can cause long-term detrimental consequences such as PTSD, depression, and anxiety. Displays of psychological maltreatment include, but are not limited to verbal attacks, isolating the victim, verbal threats of harm, humiliation, controlling the victim, and stalking. Sexual harm is characterized as any forced sexual intercourse. Research suggests that 1 in every 5 women will be raped in her lifetime (Burgess, Regerhr, Roberts, 2013) . In recent years the issue of Intimate Partner Violence has gained much attention from researchers and psychologists everywhere. Many attribute this type of violence to the need for individuals to have power and to be in control of those around them. Intimate partner violence is often portrayed in movies and in TV shows. Many movies are exaggerated for entertainment purposes, however Enough directed by Michael Apted and staring Jennifer Lopez is a heart wrenching classic that truly emulatesShow MoreRelatedGender Inequality And Gender Equality1673 Words   |  7 Pagesperceptions of individuals based on their gender. It results from differences in socially constructed gender roles. Inequality is an issue that has a negative effect on both the individual and society. 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Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Objectives of Air Traffic Services. (ATS) Example For Students

Objectives of Air Traffic Services. (ATS) Aims of Air Traffic Services. ( ATS ) First of all I would wish to advert about Air Traffic Services. Air Traffic Control Service ATC. Aerodrome Control Service Approach Control Service Area Control Service Flight Information Service Alerting Service Flight Advisory Service These are the chief ATS services. Then I would wish to explicate approximately chief aims of ATS. a ) Prevent hits between aircraft ; B ) Prevent hits between aircraft on the maneuvering country and obstructors on that country ; degree Celsius ) Expedite and keep an orderly flow of air traffic ; vitamin D ) Provide advice and information useful for the safe and efficient behavior of flights ; vitamin E ) Notify appropriate organisations sing aircraft in demand of hunt and deliverance assistance, and help such organisations as required.( ICAO 2013 ) Prevent hits between aircrafts. There are two boundaries in the universe which is utilizing in the Aviation. Western Bound Eastern Bound Aircrafts which are winging in the Eastern edge, pilots should hold to utilize Odd flight height degrees. When they are winging to Western edge, Pilots should hold to obey Evens flight heights. This regulation makes certainly the safe of aircrafts. Not merely that, If the pilots need to fall or mount their aircraft. First of all pilots should hold to inquire it, from ATC. After ATC unite check the radio detection and ranging and flight height, aircraft’s velocity, if there are no any aircraft in that mob and they will give the pervasion. If there are more aircrafts in that peculiar country they are inquiring velocities and estimation clip for peculiar point, so after ATC unite decide the clip for pilots to mount or fall. EX. after 15 min. UL302 can mount up to xxx fleet degree. If there are more aircrafts in same path or height, ATC look into the velocities and alter their Flight heights. If there is a busy path, ATC unite alteration aircrafts velocities and way. After they help to do certain aircrafts finish path. Pilots should hold to obey ATC instructions while they are winging. Not merely that they have to do transition between Pilots and ATC unite. Because ATC unite ever alert about aircrafts speed height and their paths. Therefore their instructions will be aid to forestall alliance between aircrafts while they are winging. Prevent hits between aircraft on the maneuvering country and obstructors on that country. Maneuvering is pilots winging into Aspen’s Pitkin County Airport ( ASE ) should be cognizant of FAA Notice NOTC4835, which addresses two safety issues at the field. The notice efforts to extenuate on-going safety incidents at the Colorado airdrome affecting aircraft, vehicles and walkers on tracks and non-movement country. Outside the skiing season, the movement/non-movement country boundary line was repositioned closer to Taxiway.( AIN 2013 ) When the aircraft parked at Apron, pilots should hold to inquire from Air Traffic Control Unite â€Å"flight figure and can we force back and get down the engines.† If there are no any aircraft has pushed back and get down their engines at the apron, ATC unite gave the permission to force back and get down the engines. If there are any aircraft bushed back and stare ATC will detain the permission. Because ATC avoid the hit between aircraft inside the Apron, Before the return off pilots should hold to acquire the permission from ATC unite. They give the flow of orders, ATC look into the taxing ways and track and unclutter the taxing ways and track. Later than they give the taxing figure for pilots to come in the track. Behind ATC give the permission to take off and they maintain aircraft’s height. ATC unite has to vouch safe of aircraft, that’s the ground for clear the taxing ways and track. It stops hit between aircrafts and vehicles. Pilots should hold to follow the orders of direction before the landing. ATC will unclutter the track for set downing. They absorb aircrafts and vehicles in the track. ATC will supply wind waies, and glide way. If there any takeoff or landing on the track, ATC late their permission and pull off both aircrafts paths. Under the hapless visibleness state of affairss they delayed aircrafts takeoff and landing. After they manage and help to make their finishs. ATC cheque every nock and comer inside the airdrome and prevent hit between aircrafts and obstructors on that country. degree Celsiuss.Expedite and keep an orderly flow of air traffic. When the busy paths, ATC manage aircraft’s Speed, Altitudes waies. These alterations help to forestall from hit between aircrafts and command the traffic among aircrafts. Before the return off, ATC cheque and manage aircraft going times. ATC will pull off all aircrafts to takeoff on clip. When if it is a busy periods or busy airdromes, measure by measure, ATC will unclutter the track, taxing ways and apron. They will pull off airport aerospace’s traffic. Because it will be a ground for air hit. vitamin D.Provide advice and information useful for the safe and efficient behavior of flights. Aircraft’s Altimeter indicates aircraft’s current height with utilizing air force per unit area. Topographic point to put Air force per unit area and Density can alter. Because of this ground pilots have to come in average see flat force per unit area to the altimeter. Before the landing pilots have to come through right glide way, hence pilots have to cognize right height of aircraft. ATC unit provide land force per unit area mean sea degree force per unit area and denseness of these countries before the landing. Aircrafts use some states aero infinites, Flight Information Regents FIR of those counties provide force per unit area denseness and temperature to keep aircraft’s height. The Millenium Bug EssayLights and Signals from Aerodrome. Color and type of signal Aircraft on the land Aircraft in flight Motion of vehicles,equipment and forces Steady viridity Cleared for takeoff Cleared to set down Cleared to traverse ; continue ; travel Flashing green Cleared to taxi Tax return for set downing ( to be followed by steady viridity at the proper clip ) Not applicable Steady red Stop Give manner to other aircraft and go on circling Stop Flashing ruddy Taxi clear of set downing country or track in usage Airport unsafe- Do non set down Clear the taxiway/runway Flashing white Tax return to get downing point on airdrome Not applicable Tax return to get downing point on airdrome Alternating ruddy and green General Warning Signal- Exercise Extreme Caution General Warning Signal- Exercise Extreme Caution General Warning Signal- Exercise Extreme Caution Fig.02 (Federal aviation agency 2014) Steering Area Marking Signals. Runway A ; Taxiway Signs ILS Critical Area Holding Position Sign Fig.03 Runway Approach Holding Area Position Sign Fig.04 Taxiway Location Sign Fig.05 Runway Holding Position Sign Fig.06 Destination Signs A ; Location Sign Fig.07 Outbound Destination Sign Fig.08 Inbound Destination Sign Fig.09 Runway Boundary Sign Fig.10 Taxiway Ending Marker Fig.11 Closed Runway and Taxiway Marking Fig.12 Direction Sign for Runway Exit Fig.13 ILS Critical Area Boundary Sign Fig.14 Keeping Position and Location Signs Fig.15 Runway Location Sign Fig.16 Ocular Approaching Navigational Aids. Any manmade objects with easy to happen the manner and attack for pilots.VASIS Lights. Ocular Approach Slope Indication System White/White Too Height Red/White on Glide Path Runway Runway Red/Red Too Low RunwayFig.17 PAPI Lights Precision Approach Path Indicator Fig.18Runway 4 White persons Excessively High 3 White persons / 1 Red Slightly High 2 White persons / 2 Red On Glide Path 1 White persons / 3 Red Too Low Relationship among Runway, Taxing and Control Tower. Runway A defined country on a land airport prepared for landing and taking off of aircraft called as a track. Taxing manner A general thought is path on a Land airport established for taxiing of aircraft and to supply a nexus between apron and track. Control Tower It is the unite where control aircrafts vehicles and steering country. Air Traffic Controlling Tower is situated in enchantress is the topographic point where can acquire the to the full and cleared position point. It is the highest edifice in that country. ATC members can acquire the to the full 360 degree position of an airdrome. Runway, Taxiing Ways and Apron have linked with Air Traffic Control Tower. Because it is the most responsible topographic point. ATC tower Control Approaching visible radiations Runway visible radiations, Taxing visible radiations, Runway border visible radiations, Runway center line, Runway threshold Runway terminal. There is a flow of orders, before the landing or take off. Then tower is the topographic point where the guided aircrafts. They ever check the airdrome country and do certain the safe of aircrafts, vehicles, and peoples. When the aircraft pushed back and get down their engines and until their take off, ATC provide instructions utilizing taxing and track signals for safety efficient. If the aircrafts ready to take off, foremost ATC has to unclutter taxing and track from other aircrafts and vehicles. Using lights systems and signals they will take all the vehicles and aircrafts for safety. Because tower has a rich and clear visibleness. If it is an exigency ATC tower will do determinations and Inform those thing for other parties. Therefore they can declare it easy Always they will do certain the safe of an Airport. Role of tower accountant. BEFORE Conveying Listen-out carefully to guarantee no intervention from another station Be familiar with Good Microphone runing techniques Use a normal conversation tone, A ; speak Clearly A ; Distinctly Maintain an even rate of address i‚? 100 words per minute, talk even slower when receiver writes-down Keep a changeless Speaking Volume degree A little intermission before A ; after Numberss aids to do it easier to understand g ) Avoid utilizing vacillation sounds such as â€Å"er† H ) A changeless distance from ‘mic’ recommended if a modulator with a changeless degree is non used I ) Suspend address temporarily if turning your caput off from ‘mic’ J ) Depress PTT to the full before talking A ; do non let go of it until message is complete to guarantee transmittal of full message K ) Long messages be interrupted momently to allow the transmission operator to corroborate the Frequency in usage is Clear, A ; if necessary to allow the receiver to bespeak repeat of any parts non received.(Exforxys 2012) Advices for Air Traffic Controllers. Keep the mike about one inch from the oral cavity. Speak straight into the mike. Speak clearly, be after what you intend to state. Don’t cartridge holder transmittal. Listen out before the transmit. Don’t expect an immediate reply. ( wait 10-15 seconds before seeking once more ) Establish communications. ( utilizing the wording ) Wait for a answer. Mentions Diaries ICAO, 2013, About Annex 11, Air Traffic Services first edition, ICAO, Montreal 01 ICAO, 2013, Annex 10, ,, Communication failure procedures 04 ICAO, 2013, Annex 10, ,, Communication failure procedures 05 Web sites Figure Page Fig.01 It my ain creationpage03 Fig.02 It my ain creationpage06 Fig.03 to Fig.16 from hypertext transfer protocol: // page07-08 Fig.017 It my ain creationpage09 Fig.018 It my ain creationpage09 Page | 1

Monday, December 2, 2019

Theory Analysis on Haydns Piano Sonata in Bb Major free essay sample

Haydn Piano Sonata in Bb Major Haydns Piano Sonata in Bb major has three clearly defined sections: the exposition, the development, and the recapitulation. In the exposition, the thematic statement from measure 1 through 10 is more or less the introduction followed by a theme in parallel period from measures 11 to beat two of 22. Up to this point we are in the key of Bb major, ending on a half cadence. Though it stays in this key, E is tonicized with a five of four in measures 11 and 16. Next is what I consider a bridge section in F major, connecting the themes in Bb to the themes in F. The reason I see it as a bridge phrase is for three reasons: ascending patterns, the augmented sixth chords to five, and the E natural in the last chord sounds like a leading tone. Between measures 23 and 26, the downbeats are ascending by step, then in measure 27, there is an augmented sixth chord. We will write a custom essay sample on Theory Analysis on Haydns Piano Sonata in Bb Major or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Then measure 28 is a five chord, measure 29 another augmented sixth chord, and lastly in measure 30 another five chord. This right here is a clear example of an extension by repetition. It seems like Haydn really put emphasis on that augmented sixth to five to give it the feeling of needing to continue on; that it is not a phrase that can stand on its own. Finally, on that last five chord, there is an E natural in the soprano voice, and with the subtle pause in the recording, it sounds and feels like a leading tone to F, which is the key of the next theme starting in measure 31. The second half of the exposition has a contrasting period followed by the closing statement. The first period is from measure 31 to the down beat of measure 48. There are quite a few secondary dominants including a five of four in 32 and 34 (yet another example of extension by repetition), and a five of five in 36 and 37. This can also be viewed as an ascension in the theme, but then it ends in measure 43 with the thematic statement from the introduction. However, there is a cadential extension from 44 to the downbeat of 48. The reason I see it as an extension is because it only consists of 5 measures, and to me it seems like it is too much out of balance in length to stand on its own as a theme. The second period has a theme similar to the first period, in that it sounds like it needs to keep going on. I see where it can sound like its pulling to a close, especially in the bass line, but to me, I hear the exposition coming to a close in measure 56 because of the pedal tone F in the bass line, followed by the thematic statement from the introduction again. It stays in F to the end of the exposition. The middle section is the development section. A lot of the same themes from the exposition are built upon by the use of several key areas, six to be exact: F, G, A, Bb, C, and D. It begins in measure 62 and ends in 101. From 62 to 71, it begins with the same thematic statement from the introduction, except it is in F major. However, in measure 72, there is a five of four leading to four, or the key of Bb. It stays in Bb up to measure 75, because in measure 76 is a five of six leading to six, where the cadence ends in D minor. Still however, measures 77 and 78 seem to tonicize the key of A minor. I believe that it did go to A because measure 76 seems to hint that it is going to D, but then deceives us by going to A very briefly before going two-six, five-four-two, one-six in C major from measures 79 to 81. The piece continues on in C major until it gets to 92, where it switches to two, five, one-six from measures 92 through 95. That is when it gets to the ending statement of the development section from measures 96 to the down beat of 101. It is still in C, but it has the same sequential movement from measure 17 in the exposition, which is an ascending line. As far as ascending and descending lines go, a lot of them are the same from the exposition, but they are just in different keys, such as 73 through 76, and 79 through the down beat of 84. The first is ascending in the key of F major as opposed to the key of Bb major in the introduction, and the second is descending in the key of C major as opposed to measures 31 through 35 in F major. This leads us to the third and final section of the sonata: the recapitulation. It begins in measure 102 and goes to the end of the piece in measure 148. The entire recapitulation is in the key of Bb major, but includes several thematic statements from both the exposition and the development. It begins with the same exact introduction from the exposition; same theme, same key (Bb). Then, it gets thrown off at 108, when it doesn’t quite follow the introduction. Basically, measures 7 through 10 are deleted from the re-statement, and instead takes us to the equivalency of the bridge section, but in Bb instead of F. That part is very crucial I feel, because when it was in F, its purpose was to sound like it needed to go on, whereas in Bb, it sounds like we’re coming to a close by returning to the original key. So in conclusion, from 110 to the end, it is exactly the same as the second part of the exposition, except instead of being in F, it is in Bb. If I may say so, this was a very catchy little tune throughout and it was sort of fun to actually figure out and understand a lot of musical concepts and forms I’ve learned in my three semesters studying music.